the beginning of the Bronze Age, the Viet tribe groups had settled down
in the North and in the north of Central Vietnam. There were about 15
groups of Lac Viet tribesmen living mainly in the northern highland and
delta and a dozen Au Viet groups of tribesmen living in Viet Bac, the
northern region of old Vietnam.
In the 3rd century BC, the Han people who lived in the YellowRiver basin unified China, merging the various ethnic groups who lived in southern China to the south of the Yangtze River into a centralized empire. This feudal empire soon spread southwards.
oppressive occupation soon triggered fierce resistance. As early as the
end of 1407, many uprisings began to occur. A descendant of the Tran
Dynasty proclaimed himself king in 1407, taking the name Gian Dinh and
setting up his headquarters in Nghe An Province.
early as JuIy 1407, the Ming emperor had incorporated Dai Viet into the
Chinese empire under the title of Giao Chi Province, set up a central
administration, and divided the country into phu and chau, trying to reach down to village level by 1419.
Towards the end of the 14th century, a great crisis shook the country. The Ming court, then reigning in China,
took advantage of this to invade Dai Viet and to impose a form of
direct rule which was to last for twenty years (1407-1427). However, the
invaders encountered stiff resistance from the beginning, and national
independence was eventually wrested back in 1427 by Le Loi, the founder
of the Le Dynasty.
On August 31, 1858,
a French naval squadron attacked Danang, launching several episodes of
a war of colonial conquest waged by French imperialism between 1858 and
1884 and resulting in the total annexation of the country.
the summer of 1945, popular discontent reached a climax and
revolutionary action involving both political and armed struggle
proliferated throughout the country, from north to south, in villages
and cities, and among the ethnic minorities in the mountainous regions.