Vietnam History

Country's official name

At the beginning of the Bronze Age, the Viet tribe groups had settled down in the North and in the north of Central Vietnam. There were about 15 groups of Lac Viet tribesmen living mainly in the northern highland and delta and a dozen Au Viet groups of tribesmen living in Viet Bac, the northern region of old Vietnam.    (Detail)

Prehistoric Era

 Prehistoric Era of Vietnam include: Pre-Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Age.    (Detail)

Chinese domination period (1st century, BC - 10th century, AD)

In the 3rd century BC, the Han people who lived in the Yellow River basin unified China, merging the various ethnic groups who lived in southern China to the south of the Yangtze River into a centralized empire. This feudal empire soon spread southwards.


Insurrections and the struggle for independence

The grim resistance by the population against Chinese imperialist domination, which persisted century after century, time and again, broke out in the form of armed insurrection.    (Detail)

Ngo Dynasty (939 - 965)

Ngo King (939-944)
Later Ngo King (950-965)


Dinh Dynasty (968-980)

Dinh Tien Hoang (968-979)

Dynastic title: Thai Binh (970-979)    (Detail)

Pre-Le Dynasty (980-1009)

Le Dai Hanh (980-1005)

Dynastic title: Thien Phuc (980-988); Hung Thong (989-993); Ung Thien (994-1005)

Le Trung Tong (1005)

Le Long Dinh (1005-1009)


Ly Dynasty (1010-1225)

Kings of Ly Dynasty:

- Ly Thai To (1010-1028)

- Ly Thai Tong (1028-1054)

- Ly Thanh Tong (1054-1072)

- Ly Nhan Tong 1072-1127)


- Ly Than Tong (1128-1138)

- Ly Anh Tong (1138-1175)

- Ly Cao Tong (1176-1210)

- Ly Hue Tong (1211-10/1224)

- Ly Chieu Hoang (1225)


Tran Dynasty (1225-1400)

Kings of Tran Dynasty:

- Tran Thai Tong (1225-1258)

- Tran Thanh Tong (1258-1272)

- Tran Nhan Tong (1279-1293)

- Tran Anh Tong (1293-1314)

- Tran Anh Tong (1314-1329)

- Tran Hien Tong (1329-1341)

- Tran Du Tong (1314-1369)

- Tran Nghe Tong (1370-1372)

- Tran Due Tong (1372-1377)

- Tran Phe De (1377-1388)

- Tran Thuan Tong (1388-1398)

- Tran Thieu De (1398-1400)

Ho Dynasty (1400-1407)

The Ho lasted for 7 years, from 1400 to 1407, with two kings:

 - Ho Quy Ly (1400)

 - Ho Han Thuong (1401 - 1407)   

Later Tran Dynasty (1407-1413)

The oppressive occupation soon triggered fierce resistance. As early as the end of 1407, many uprisings began to occur. A descendant of the Tran Dynasty proclaimed himself king in 1407, taking the name Gian Dinh and setting up his headquarters in Nghe An Province.    (Detail)

Ming occupation and Lam Son insurrection

As early as JuIy 1407, the Ming emperor had incorporated Dai Viet into the Chinese empire under the title of Giao Chi Province, set up a central administration, and divided the country into phu and chau, trying to reach down to village level by 1419.    (Detail)

Le So Dynasty (1428-1527)

Towards the end of the 14th century, a great crisis shook the country. The Ming court, then reigning in China, took advantage of this to invade Dai Viet and to impose a form of direct rule which was to last for twenty years (1407-1427). However, the invaders encountered stiff resistance from the beginning, and national independence was eventually wrested back in 1427 by Le Loi, the founder of the Le Dynasty.    (Detail)

Tay Son Dynasty

Kings of Tay Son Dynasty (1778-1802):
                  - Thai Duc (1778-1793)
                  - Quang Trung (Nguyen Hue) (1789-1792)

Canh Thinh (1793 - 1802)    

Nguyen Dynasty

Kings of Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1945):

- Gia Long (1802-1819)
- Minh Menh (1820-1840)
- Thieu Tri (1841-1847)
- Tu Duc (1848-1883)
- Duc Duc (1883, 3 days)
- Hiep Hoa (1883, 4 months).

- Kien Phuc (1883-1884)
- Ham Nghi (1884-1885)
- Dong Khanh (1886-1888)
- Thanh Thai (1889-1907)
- Duy Tan (1907-1916)
- Khai Dinh (1916-1925)
- Bao Dai (1926-1945)


French domination period (1857-1945)

 On August 31, 1858, a French naval squadron attacked Danang, launching  several episodes of a war of colonial conquest waged by French imperialism between 1858 and 1884 and resulting in the total annexation of the country.    (Detail)

Independent Vietnam (since 1945)

In the summer of 1945, popular discontent reached a climax and revolutionary action involving both political and armed struggle proliferated throughout the country, from north to south, in villages and cities, and among the ethnic minorities in the mountainous regions.    (Detail)