Muong ethnic group
Name of ethnic group: Muong (Moi, Mual, Moi, Moi Bi, Au Ta and Ao Ta).
Population: More than 1,137,515 people (Year 1999).
Locality: The largest population is concentrated in Hoa Binh Province and the mountainous districts of Thanh Hoa Province.
Customs and habits|
former days, the "lang dao" system characterized Muong society. The
"lang dao" ruled the Muong regions. A head of a "muong" was a "lang
cun", "lang xom", or "dao xom".
Muong marriage customs are
similar to the Kinh. When a woman is giving birth to a child, her family
surrounds the main ladder to the house with a bamboo fence. The child
will be given a name when it is one year old. The Muong hold funerals
with strict rules. Muong practice a polytheistic religion and ancestor
Muong language belongs to the Viet-Muong group. The popular literature
and arts of the Muong are rich and include long poems, "mo" (ceremonial
songs), folksongs, dialogue duets, proverbs, lullabies, and children's
songs. The gong is a favorite musical instrument of the Muong, as are
the two stringed violins, flutes, drums and pan pipes.
hold many ceremonies year round such as the Going to the Fields Ceremony
("Khuong Mua"), Praying-for-Rain Ceremony (during the fourth lunar
month), Washing Rice Leaves Ceremony (during the seventh and eighth
lunar months), and the New Rice Ritual.
dress in indigo pajamas. Women wear white rectangular scarves, bras,
long skirts, and short vests that are open at the front (or at the
shoulders) without buttons. The skirt is complemented by a very large
silk belt embroidered with various motifs such as flowers, figures,
dragons, phoenixes, deer, and birds.
Muong have practiced farming for a long time. Wet rice is their main
food staple. Other family income is generated through the exploitation
of forest products including mushrooms, dried fungus, ammonium, and
sticklac. Muong handicrafts include weaving, basketry, and silk
spinning. Muong women are known to be very skilled at loom weaving.